Identifying the codecs doesn't really matter; all you really need to know is whether XBMC will handle them or not, and you've already determined that.
It would be worth checking under Settings => Videos =>Playback to see whether "DVDPlayer full codec support" is enabled. These days, XBMC uses a scaled down version of DVDPlayer by default, in order to save on RAM. If you're using MPlayer for playback, check the System\Players\MPlayer\Codecs folder in your XBMC directory to see if you've got the MPlayer codecs installed; some distrobutions of XBMC include them (T3CH), some don't. You can press the white button on a video to get the option to choose between players if you want to try either or both.
So you've cleared up the partitioning matter, then? Note that if more then 256gb is copied to a badly formatted partition, there's a good chance you'll lose ALL the contents.